Part of the engraved and manuscript text of the Diploma: 'Serenissime ac Potentissimi Imperatoris / NICOLAI PRIMI AUGUSTI / totius Russiae Autocratoris/ iussu / Ego Sergius de Ouvaroff / Academiae Scientiarum Praeses, / Pro poteste ab Augusto mihi concessa, / Virum Celeberrimum suisque titulis condecorandum/ [in manuscript:] Dm Petrum Barlow [engraved text:] Communi totius Academiae Petropolitanae suffragio /[in manuscript:] Membrum honorarium/ solemni hoc Diplomate declaro/ eumque honore, privilegiis et beneficius [in manuscript:] honorariorum [engraved text:] ordini/ concessis rite orno / Petropoli die [in manuscript:] 10 Maii 1826' Signed in autograph 'Ouvaroff' and by the secretary 'P.H.Fuss [?].
St. Petersbourg, The St. Petersbourg Academy, 1826. Large oblong folio, engraved plate containing the engraved text, engr. heraldic devices Nicolas I [two angels w. trumpets & central capital 'N' 'I'] & Russian 2 headed eagle, crowned], 'Cornucopoeia / Horns of Plenty surrounded by engr. depictions of instruments [telescope, globe, barometer, distillery vat [?], books, rulers etc.] and palm trees to left and right depicting 8 classes of scientific subjects, of the Honorary Membership, the blanks [3 x] filled out 'Dm Petrum Barlow' & 'Membrum honorarium' & 'honorariorum' in secretarial calligraphic hand. Autograph signatures of Praeses Ouvaroff & secretary, see note below. The diploma itself meas. appr. 38 x 48 cm, folded 5 times into 19 x 12 cm. On wove paper. A large paper seal, somewhat browned, split vertically, to lower left of the document, depicting the Russian Imperial crowned eagles, diameter 58 mm, with the cut paper decorated border, appr. 115 mm. (The central folds w. some imperfections, 2 x a small hole, easily restored.). (Some plate tone, platemarks seemingly absent.). Official Diploma for the Honorary Membership of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, in the name of Peter Barlow, signed and dated 'Petropoli die 10 Maii 1826', autograph signature 'Ouvaroff' and secretary 'P.H.Fuss [?]. The current RAS [Russian Academy of Sciences] incorporates over 1000 institutions, libraries, publishers, hospitals, research centers etc. The foundation of the Academy has its roots in the early 18th century when, Peter the Great, under advisement of Gottfried Leibniz, founded the Academy in Saint Petersburg, decreed by the Senate on February 8, 1725. The original name was 'The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, until the Revolution of 1917 being renamed a few times [The Imperial Academy of Sciences and Art, The Imperial Academy of Sciences, lastly The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences]. A large number of foreign scholars were invited to work at the Academy, including Euler, Bilfinger, Bernouilli, Gmelin, Wolff, Delisle, Maskelyne etc. The 'Russian Academy' founded to study the Russian language in 1783 merged with the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1841. After the October Revolution in 1917 and the Great War, the world and the political stage had completely changed, resulting in a shift of interest from the Academy mainly into geology, minerals, researching of ways to industrialize, develop modern arms and armour, tanks, airplanes etc. The 2nd World War saw the escalation of the arms race, the Academy's involvement in the atomic bomb project. Shortly after the 2nd WW the Academy was involved in the Soviet space program, launching the first satellite in 1957 and bringing Yuri Gagarin into space in 1961. Physics and nuclear physics brought many new developments instigated by the [Soviet] Academy, many promising scientists started their careers in one of the many research institutes of the Academy. December 2, 1991 the academy again became the Russian Academy of Sciences, but the demise of the USSR led to an incredible loss in funding for researchers and institutes, so much so that around 2013 the annual budget was still 40% under the levels of pre-1991. Large scale reform of the RAS and a new organizational structure [FASO Russia] have failed and met with harsh criticism from leading scientists, who called the reforms "shocking" and even "criminal" [note 23 of the RAS article]. Election to membership of the Russian Academy of Sciences is still considered as a very prestigious honour. DSB vol. I, pp. 459 - 460 [article by Harold I. Sharlin]: Peter Barlow [1776 - 1862], English mathematician and physicist. 'Although he was self-educated, Barlow succesfully competed for the position of assistant mathematics master at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. While there he wrote mathematical articles... he also published 'An elementary Investigation of the Theory of Numbers' , 'A New Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary' , and 'New Mathematical Tables' , later known as 'Barlow's Tables'. ... Barlow's reputation was established with the publication of his 'Essay on the Strength and Stress of Timber' , the result of experiments he conducted at the Woolwich dockyard and arsenal ... Barlow was made an honorary member of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1820. In 1819 Barlow became interested in the compass deviation by the iron in ships. He therefore investigated the action of terrestrial magnetism and conducted a series of experiments on the interaction of iron objects and compass needles. His results, [were] published as 'Essay on Magnetic Attractions' , ...for his discoveries in magnetism he was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1823 and received the Copley Medal in 1825. He also received international recognition and several awards for his contribution to navigation [2 very important international awards / honours NOT mentioned in the DSB article: His membership of the St. Petersbourg Academy of Sciences 1826 HERE OFFERED THE ORIGINAL DIPLOMA and his Foreign Honorary membership of the American Society [=Academy] of Arts and Sciences, 1832. Barlow was also concerned with electromagnetism and unsuccessfully attempted to make an electric telegraph [the insulation failed]... Around 1827 Barlow became interested in the calculation for the curvature of achromatic object glasses, and in the course of his research he developed a telescope lens consisting of colorless liquid [= carbon disulfide] between two pieces of glass. The "Barlow lens", a modification of this telescope lens, is a negative achromatic combination of flint glass and crown glass.': His work on this achromatic lens that uses liquid carbon disulfide was executed in the years 1827 - 1832 in collaboration with the optician and instrumentmaker George Dolland. Book of Members American Academy of Arts and Sciences [AAAS] 1780 - 2019, Under the letter B, p. 33: 'Barlow, Peter (1776 - 1862). Election: 1832, FHM [=...]. Affiliation at election: Royal Military Academy. Residence at election: Woolwich, England. Career description: Mathematician; Physicist; Educator.' Peter Barlow's last resting place is the Charlton cemetery in London where his headstone specifically mentions 'The Royal Academy, Woolwich', his memberships of the Institut de France, the Academy of Brussels, St. Petersburg. The document is signed by Sergej Ouvaroff [Uvarov], praeses of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the period 1818 - 1855, Minister of Education from 1833 - 1849. Count [from 1846 onwards] Sergey Semionovich Uvarov [Ouvaroff] (1786 - 1855), was a classical scholar and a very important and influential statesman under Czar Nicholas I. His influence on especially educational matters and acces to learning was massive and quite elitist in nature. He studied in Göttingen between 1811 - 1822 and was acquainted to Von Humboldt, Madame de Stael, Goethe. He was himself elected Honorable Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1811. Count Uvarov is mostly remembered for his undying and loyal support for Nicholas I, his educational reform was strictly executed with his famous words 'With faith in the ... principles of orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality' in mind. He glorified the ruler, adhered to traditional religious faith and supported a vision of and belief in the Russian homeland. Although he did expand the educational system and tightened the control by the Government over University and secondary-school programs, he was firmly opposed to ordinary (or 'non noble', non privileged] children taking part in education.
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